The oxysale, oxosalts or ternary salts are compounds resulting from the union of a cation of a metallic element (sometimes non-metallic), a non-metallic element and oxygen. They are the product of the substitution of the hydrogen atoms of an oxacid. They can be obtained by the reaction between a hydroxide and an oxacid. For example: sodium nitrate, potassium chlorate, ammonium sulfate.
Like most salts, they are also soluble in water almost all oxysalts and, when dissolved in water, are good conductors of electricity. On the other hand, they have a high melting point and low hardness and compressibility.
This type of chemical compound has a wide range of practical, industrial and pharmacological uses. These are substances of common production and high demand, abundant also in their natural state: the earth’s crust is largely made up of salts of this type.
Examples of oxysal salts
- Sodium nitrate (Elder brother3). It is used in the treatment of botulism, a condition caused by neurotoxins of bacterial origin.
- Sodium nitrite (Elder brothertwo). It is a typical salt used in the food industry, as a preservative and color fixer.
- Potassium nitrate (KNO3). It is usually used as a fertilizer, either directly or as a raw material for liquid and multi-nutrient fertilizers.
- Copper (I) sulfate (CutwoSW4). It has applications as a pool cleaner, as a photosynthetic supplement in all types of vegetable crops and in the agronomic industry.
- Potassium chlorate (KCIO3). The head of matches is made with this substance and it is widely used in the pyrotechnic industry, given its high release of energy when it comes into contact with substances such as sugar or sulfur and is subjected to friction.
- Sodium sulfate (NatwoSW4). Soluble in water and glycerin, it is used as a desiccant in the chemical industry and in laboratories and in the manufacture of glass, detergents and cellulose for paper.
- Barium sulfate (BaSO4). It is present in its mineral form (barite), extremely common, and is used in the production of hydrogen peroxide, in the rubber industry and in paint pigments. It is also used to cover X-ray rooms, since it is opaque to this type of radiation.
- Calcium carbonate (Thief3). It is a powerful calcium supplement, essential in the production of glass and cement. It is also used as an antacid and adsorbent agent in medicine. It is very abundant in nature: the shells of crustaceans and skeletons of many organisms are made from this salt.
- Calcium sulfate (Case4). It is used as a desiccant and as a coagulant in the preparation of tofu. It is a common chemical in most laboratories.
- Sodium phosphates (NaHtwoPO4, NatwoHPO4, Na3PO4 and others). There are three types of salts used in the food industry as stabilizers or anti-drying additives, as well as in the pharmacological one against the formation of kidney stones and as laxatives.
- Cobalt Silicate (COSIO3). It is used in pigments for the artistic paint industry, specifically in the production of cobalt blue or enamel blue.
- Calcium hypochlorite (AC[ClO]two). It is highly effective as a bactericide and disinfectant, which is why it is used in wastewater treatment and as a bleach.
- Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Commonly known as bleach, it is a strongly oxidizing substance, only stable in basic pH, used as a disinfectant and bleach, with high toxicity especially in combination with other acids.
- Iron sulphate (II) or ferrous (FeSO4). Color between blue and green, it is used as a water purifier, colorant (indigo) and medical treatment of iron deficiency anemia, or to enrich foods with iron.
- Iron sulphate (III) or vitriol from mars (Faithtwo[SO4]3). It is a solid, yellow salt, soluble in water at room temperature, for use as a coagulant in industrial waste, a coloring pigment and an astringent drug in small doses. It is also useful in the sedimentation of residues in tanks of raw water.
- Sodium bromate (NaBrO3). It is a strong oxidant of moderate toxicity, it is used in permanent hair dyes, as a solvent for gold in mining. It was used in the bakery industry as an improver until its recent ban in many countries since the 1970s.
- Magnesium phosphate (Mg3[PO4]two). Salt against muscle cramps and spasms is a widely used medical compound against muscle, menstrual or even intestinal pain, as well as dental neuralgia and contractures.
- Aluminum sulfate (To thetwo[SO4]3). It is solid and white (type A) or brown (type B), it is widely used in the paper industry, textile pigments and until 2005 its use in antiperspirants was common, before international organizations advised against its use.
- Potassium bromate (KBrO3). Ionic salt of white crystals is an oxidizing agent that was used for many years in the manufacture of bread, as it increased the volume of the dough, but its residual permanence in the food, in cases of excessive use or insufficient cooking, can be toxic. It was used in other food industries until it was banned in most of the world (except the US) in the 1990s.
- Ammonium sulphate (NH4)twoSW4. Widely used in laboratory chemistry and in the agricultural industry as a direct action fertilizer to the soil, it is often obtained as a waste product in the manufacture of nylon.