The chemical composition of matter contains electron shells; In other words, the atoms of which all the elements are composed contain a nucleus surrounded by a series of orbits, each of which has a maximum number of electrons.
The last of these orbits, that is, the one with the greatest distance from the nucleus of the atom, can have a different number of electrons: this is what determines the ability of the entire substance to let electricity pass, which is what it is routinely known as conducting or isolating it.
The fact that the number of electrons in the outermost layer it is high explains that they do not let electrons pass from another substance that seeks to share them, which represents the minimum unit of what is known as energy. When two atoms come into contact with each other, this condition is what determines whether there will be an exchange of electrons, which is what, in the case of an electric current, produces the passage of energy.
The electric power used by this means, that is to say, the use of the potential difference allowing the current to be established is something that is fundamental for the human being, so much so that the issues related to the generation, distribution and commercialization of this energy have been greatly improved both for its commercial and residential use.
Most electrical current processes use metals, since it is proven that they are the best means for the passage of energy: in any case, hydrogen belongs to the category of no metals and it constitutes a great conductor of electricity.
However, the success of the electrical current system occurs to the extent that it can be regulated, and that current limiting materials can be included. It happens that, for example, the human body uses levels of electricity that change according to body function, but which is always lower than the electrical levels at which a large number of machines operate.
Thus, if the body (made up largely of water, a conductive material) comes into contact with this electricity, according to the power levels It can range from the perception of tingling or cramping to severe burns and potential death. In this sense, it is very common for insulating materials to be used in devices that have a very strong electrical charge.
Between insulating materials and conductors, a separate category appears which is that of semiconductors. These materials have an electrical conductivity lower than that of a metallic conductor but higher than that of a good insulator. An example is silicon.
Examples of conductive materials
Examples of insulating materials