Knowledge is understanding a set of details about a specific field of study. There are different types of knowledge that are classified according to the subject or topic they deal with or study. For example: philosophical knowledge, religious knowledge, scientific knowledge.
Knowledge is acquired through study or experience and can be theoretical or practical. It is used to interpret reality, solve problems, be aware of the operation within systems and processes.
- Philosophical knowledge
Philosophical knowledge includes the knowledge and study of certain fundamental questions such as knowledge, truth, morality, the existence of the human being.
Philosophy uses reason to answer questions about the person or the world. For example: Where are we going? What is the meaning of life? Philosophical knowledge is divided into multiple branches, such as ethics and metaphysics.
They are distinguished from science because they are not based on empirical facts, and they differ from religious knowledge because they use reason as the foundation and are based on the human capacity to reflect.
- Scientific knowledge
Scientific knowledge is obtained by knowing and investigating reality through the scientific method, through which an attempt is made to reveal the reason for things and their transformations. For example: In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin while studying bacterial cultures; Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of genetic inheritance by studying the interbreeding of different plants.
Through the scientific method, a hypothesis is raised about reality that is tried to be empirically verified through observation, evidence and experimentation. In this process, many or no answers can be found. The scientific method must be objective, focused and very careful. To describe it it is necessary to use a technical and correct language. Through this method scientific laws and theories are formulated.
Scientific knowledge can be classified as empirical (those that are related to reality) such as natural sciences, social sciences, physics and biology; and formal, among which are mathematics and logic.
- Ordinary knowledge
Ordinary knowledge or vulgar knowledge are those knowledge that are based on the experience acquired by each person. They are present spontaneously in all human beings.
As they are based on personal experience, they are usually subjective knowledge and do not need verification. They are permeated by emotions, habits and customs of each person in particular, based on the knowledge and experiences that they acquire in their day-to-day lives. They are popular knowledge that is usually transmitted from generation to generation. For example: Superstitions such as: “black cats bring bad luck.”
- Technical knowledge
Technical knowledge specializes in the knowledge of a particular activity that is carried out by one or more people. They are linked to scientific knowledge. This type of knowledge is acquired through study or experience and can be transmitted from generation to generation. For example: andl use of the lathe in industries; cleaning a car engine.
- Religious knowledge
Religious knowledge is the set of beliefs that is based on faith and dogmas to know and explain some aspects of reality. This set of knowledge is usually transmitted from generation to generation and make up the creeds that constitute the bases of the different religions. For example: God created the world in seven days; the Torah is a book of divine inspiration. Religious knowledge usually bases its beliefs on the existence of a superior being or divinity.
This knowledge does not require rational or empirical verification, since they are taken as true by all those who profess a certain creed. They answer questions such as the creation of the world, the existence of man, life after death.
- Artistic knowledge
Artistic knowledge is those in which a narration of subjective reality is carried out, without seeking grounds to explain it. This knowledge is unique and personal. They convey emotionality and the subjective way of each person to see and appreciate what surrounds them. For example: a poem, the lyrics of a song.
It is a knowledge that uses personal creativity and the power of transmission of each person. It occurs from an early age and can change over time.