The knowledge It is the form or contact that a subject establishes with the environment that surrounds it (and the elements that make it up) in order to know and understand it. Knowledge has four main elements: the subject, the object, the representation and the cognitive operation.
- Subject. It is the one who performs the cognitive operation, that is, who knows. It can also be called a knowing subject. This subject uses the cognitive faculties: sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing and intellect to process information.
- Object. It is that tangible or abstract element that the subject must assimilate to incorporate into his field of knowledge. This object can be partially known or totally unknown to the subject of knowledge.
- Cognitive operation. It is the act of knowing that occurs through the psychic processing that the subject must do in relation to the object in order to know it. It differs from representation, since the cognitive operation is instantaneous while representation persists in time.
- Representation. It is the internal action that the subject obtains when incorporating the object through the cognitive operation. In this type of representation, also called thought, the subject will try to reproduce the incorporated object (mental image) in his mind.
Types of knowledge
There are different types of knowledge that vary according to the way in which the information is obtained. These are:
- Empirical knowledge. Also called “popular knowledge”, it is the knowledge that is obtained through the senses. It is knowledge that occurs spontaneously, consequently, it does not present a structured method or system.
- Scientific knowledge. It is the knowledge that is achieved through the scientific method, which uses observation, hypothesis and experimentation to formulate laws that govern and structure knowledge.
- Technical knowledge. It is the knowledge that is obtained through observation or experience within a given field of study. It usually involves the use of physical or intellectual tools or skills.
Example of knowledge with its elements
The photograph. Photography is taken as an example as a discipline. The elements would be:
- Subject. It is the person who tries to know something in relation to photography.
- Object. It is photography and / or the camera itself or what you want to study. For example: how the photograph is taken, development techniques, development times, types of cameras, history of photography, among others.
- Cognitive operation. It is the act of knowledge that occurs when the subject reads, experiences or hears something in relation to photography.
- Representation. It is the mental image that the subject dumps in his mind of the action carried out or the incorporated knowledge.
A mathematical formula. The case of a child trying to learn and memorize a mathematical formula is taken as an example. The elements would be:
- Subject. It is the child who tries to know a certain mathematical formula.
- Object. It is the mathematical formula to know.
- Cognitive operation. It is the act in which the child reads and, therefore, knows the formula.
- Representation. It is the mental representation that the child makes of the formula, which allows him to memorize it and recall it when he needs it.
An animal. An animal is taken as an example. The elements would be:
- Subject. It is the person who comes into contact or tries to know something about the animal.
- Object. It is the animal that is known to the subject. It may be that you seek to know the animal as a whole or some particular characteristic, such as its physical characteristics, history, its habitat, among others.
- Cognitive operation. It is the concrete act in which the animal is known.
- Representation. It is the mental image that the subject obtains after meeting the animal.
A song. Take a song as an example. The elements would be:
- Subject. It is that person who comes into contact and knows a certain song.
- Object. It is the song that is known to the subject. You can try to know the song as a whole or some of its parts, such as the melody, the lyrics, its composer, the story, among others.
- Cognitive operation. It is the concrete act through which the subject knows the song.
- Representation. It is the mental image that is generated in the subject when he evokes the song.
Rules of a game. The rules of a board game are taken as an example and the elements would be:
- Subject. It is that person or group of people who seek to know the rules of a certain board game.
- Object. They are the rules of a game that the subject wants to know, generally, in order to play it.
- Cognitive operation. It is the concrete act by which the subject knows the rules of the game.
- Representation. It is the mental image of the rules that occurs in the mind of the subject when he evokes them.