They are named after oxyacids (or oxacids) ternary compounds formed by oxygen, hydrogen and an element corresponding to nonmetals. Therefore, the formation of an oxacid is also due to the incorporation of water into an acidic oxide. For example: bromous acid, chromic acid, nitrous acid.
The chemical formula of oxacid will always have the proportions of hydrogen first, then those of the non-metal and finally those of oxygen.
To name oxacids, the Traditional, Stock and Systematic nomenclatures can be used:
- According to the Traditional nomenclature. They are named by putting the word acid followed by the name of the nonmetal with prefixes and suffixes that correspond to the oxidation number of the nonmetal.
- If the nonmetal has oxidation number 1 or 2 it gets hypo (nonmetal name) bear.
- If the nonmetal has oxidation number 3 or 4 it gets (nonmetal name) bear.
- If the nonmetal has oxidation number 5 or 6 it gets (nonmetal name) ico.
- If the nonmetal has oxidation number 7 it is put per (nonmetal name) ico.
For example: Sulfuric acid (HtwoSW4), where sulfur has oxidation number 6+. Hyposulfurous acid (HtwoSWtwo), where sulfur has oxidation number 2+.
- According to the Stock nomenclature. They are named by putting the word acid followed by the name of the nonmetal with the prefix corresponding to the subscript number of oxygen (di (2), tri (3), tretra (4) …) and followed by “oxo”. In addition, the suffix “ico” is put to the nonmetal followed by its oxidation number in Roman numerals and between parentheses. For example: tetraoxosulfuric acid (VI) (HtwoSW4), dioxosulfuric acid (II) (HtwoSWtwo).
- According to the Systematic nomenclature. They are named by putting the numerical prefix that corresponds to the oxidation number of the nonmetal followed by the word “oxo”, followed in turn by the word “ato” and then the oxidation number of the nonmetal in Roman numerals in parentheses. Then it is written “hydrogen.” For example: hydrogen tetraoxosulfate (VI), hydrogen dioxosulfate (II).
Probably the most common of the oxacids that exist on earth is the sulfuric acid (HtwoSW4), precisely the chemical compound that is most produced in the world, for the use of fertilizers or as a reaction medium in organic and petrochemical chemical processes, for the treatment of crude oil flows. It is also common to find this substance in the steel and wood industries: its enormous number of uses explains the extent of its human development.
The oxacids, like other types of acids, react with bases to form salts and water. These acidic compounds can also change the colors of the pH indicators towards the coloration that they report at low pH. For example, phenolphthalein is colorless and litmus paper turns orange-red in contact with these acids. Also, oxacids have a sour taste similar to lemon.
Examples of oxyacids or oxacids
Oxacids have different alternatives for their designation. The following list includes examples of oxacids and in some a brief description with their uses is detailed:
- Bromous acid (HBrOtwo). Bromine compound, unstable and with only appearance as intermediate compound.
- Hypobromous acid (HBrO). It can be obtained by reaction between Brtwo And the water. It is used in dilute aqueous solution.
- Orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4). It is a non-combustible acid, but it is harmful in contact with human skin.
- Orthosilicic acid (H4Yes4). It is a weak acid, which is used as a drying agent or support
- Hypochlorous acid (HClO). It has functionalities that enable a defense system to be activated, which repairs skin tissues faster.
- Chromic acid (HtwoCrtwoOR4). It is a highly oxidizing and corrosive solid, considered a strong acid that at high temperatures is an unstable compound.
- Permanganic acid (HMnO4). It is a very strong acid, also known only in aqueous solution.
- Bromic acid (HBrO3). It is the oxacid of bromine, whose salts are powerful oxidizing agents.
- Periodic acid (HIO4). It is used as a reagent to analyze structures of other molecules in organic chemistry.
- Dichromic acid (HtwoCrtwoOR7). It is present in the mixtures of chromic acid used for glass cleaning, together with the mixture of chromic and sulfuric acid.
- Metaphosphoric acid (HPO3). It is a colorless and odorless solid at room temperature. Very corrosive.
- Iodic acid (HIO3). It is a reagent used to detect the presence of morphine in a product, also used in iodic acid salts.
- Sulfurous acid (HtwoSW3). It is a powerful reducing agent for bleaching stains on chlorine-damaged materials. It is the cause of acid rain.
- Sulfuric acid (HtwoSW4). It is one of the most widely used chemical compounds in the world, common in fertilizers and in metal processing.
- Carbonic acid (HtwoCO3). It is an acid used in gaseous form for the manufacture of carbonated beverages and in the chemical industry.
- Nitric acid (HNO3). It is a liquid commonly used as a laboratory reagent, with strong dangers of causing burns in humans.
- Chloric acid (HClO3). It is an aqueous solution, stable in cold up to a concentration of approximately 30%. Its decomposition produces a large number of products.
- Nitrous acid (HNOtwo). It is an acid that, in solution, is remarkably dissociated.
- Arsenious acid (H3AsO3). Like any compound that contains arsenic, it is highly toxic and carcinogenic. It is used in herbicides and pesticides.
- Orthoarsenic acid (H3AsO4)
- Metabolic acid (HBOtwo)
- Hyposulfurous acid (Htwotwo)
- Orthosulfuric acid (H4SW5)
- Hyponitrous acid (HtwoNtwoORtwo)
- Dichromic acid (HtwoCrtwoOR7)
- Hypophosphorous acid (H3POtwo)
- Pyrosulfuric acid (HtwoStwoOR7)
- Triphosphoric acid (H5P3OR10)
- Orthoperiodic acid (H5IO6)
- Metaphosphorous acid (HPOtwo)
- Perchloric acid (HClO4)
- Pyrophosphorous acid (H4PtwoOR5)
- Orthocarbonic acid (H4CO4)
- Metasilicic acid (HtwoYes3)
- Orthophosphorous acid (H3PO3)
- Chlorous acid (HClOtwo)
- Manganic acid (HtwoMnO4)
- Pyroscopic acid (H4SbtwoOR5)
- Hypoiodine acid (HIO)
- Pyrophosphoric acid (H4PtwoOR7)