The technical standards are a series of documents issued by a body of recognized authority in a specific matter, to regulate or impose Specifications specialized in the development and application of technology, elaboration of products or offer of relevant services. For example: ISO 9000, Copyright, NTC COPEL.
Technical standards operate in society as standardization guidelines, which standardize processes and protect the interests of society, based on ethical, efficiency, quality or safety reasons. Its final task would be, in principle, the standardization (simplification, unification, specification) of the processes for their correct supervision and ethical development.
In general, standards can have a national or international scope of action, depending on the scope of the body that promulgates them or the agreements on the matter that have taken place between countries. In that sense they are official standards, that is, issued by the authority.
When, on the contrary, the norms arise from the normative vacuum, custom and necessity, they are considered unofficial rules. These can also be valid, as long as they do not conflict with the opinions of the official regulations.
The main of these organizations at the international level is the ISO (International Organization for Standardization).
Examples of technical standards
- ISO9000. Enacted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) like the previous ones, are a series of standards for the administration of a quality criterion in the design, production, installation, service, inspection, tests and management of the various possible industrial processes, whose mission is to regulate and unify the criteria to endorse with your name only those that meet the due and specified requirements.
- ISO1000. In an attempt to specify an International System of Units, this ISO standard explains the suggested nomenclature for units, supplementary units and derived units, normalizing the use of prefixes, symbols and numbers for the broadest human understanding.
- ISBN (International Standard Book Number). English abbreviation for International Standard Book Number, is a unique identifier for books published anywhere in the world and intended for commercial use. Its origin dates back to 1966 in the United Kingdom, when WH Smith stationery stores used it to identify and serialize their products, and from 1970 it was adopted as the international editorial standard.
- ISSN (International Standard Serial Number). Like the ISBN, it is an International Standard Identification Number for periodical publications, such as yearbooks, magazines and newspapers. This rule makes it possible to standardize classifications and avoid title transcription or translation errors, which is extremely helpful for bibliographic and hemerographic catalogues.
- MPEG2 (Moving Picture Experts Group). This is the name given to a set of rules and standards for audio and video coding promulgated by the Group of Experts on Moving Images (MPEG), published in the ISO 13818 standard. The technical approaches of this regulation are used for digital terrestrial television , by satellite or cable, as well as on SVCD and DVD discs.
- 3GPP mobile telephony standards. These are a series of telecommunications standards developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (Third Generation Association Project), whose initial approach was to develop a third generation global telecommunications system (3G) for mobile phones, based on what was achieved by the previous GSM and within the framework of the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) . Today these standards cover other types of communications such as radio and core networks, given their enormous growth and importance.
- ISO22000. One of the most important standards of ISO standardization, dedicated to the treatment and regulation of food, always taking into account the safety of consumers and populations in the production, handling and distribution of consumer food goods. It contains all the necessary precautions and considerations to take into account so that a product is certified by the ISO that guarantees its potability.
- Copyright. In its beginnings, the Copyright created by the United States government was nothing more than a protection rule for maps, navigation charts and books that prevented their indiscriminate reproduction without the consent of the author. But from the 1950s it spread internationally and became the most well-known and widespread copyright standard, defending the absolute power of an author (and his heirs) over his creation until a certain time after his death (it is stipulated a minimum term of 50 years).
- Common Creative Commons Licenses. Originating in the United States, this set of legal regulations pursues a non-capitalist standardization of creative works and knowledge, ensuring their free circulation in accordance with the guidelines established by the author, which include freedom of consultation and circulation, sometimes even editing, but never for sale or commercial exploitation.
- Colombian Technical Standard NTC 4595-4596. Of obviously local action, this norm promulgated by the Colombian Ministry of Education regulates the design and spatial approach of new educational buildings, ensuring the well-being of the school community and the essential national quality standards when building a school or college. or adapt and modernize an existing one.
- Spanish Technical Standard NTP 211. This standard, also of national action, regulates what concerns the lighting of workstations in Spain, taking into account the productivity, comfort and safety of the various ranges of employees and possible workers.
- Technical Standard for Geographical Addresses. Regulations of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography of the Mexican State that establishes the different specifications of geographic data management and its integration into production and decision-making processes. It is an attempt to standardize communications on the matter within the entire country.
- NTC COPEL. Brazilian technical standard that specifies the requirements regarding electrical distribution network materials, tools, distribution network assemblies or maintenance work on networks in use. They are nominated by COPEL, a pioneer company in Brazil in electrical works and one of the largest energy distributors in Paraná.
- Argentine NTVO standards. The CRMT National Commission for Transport Regulation) in Argentina maintains a series of regulations regarding tracks and works and railway control, ranging from the organization and national conservation of the rails to the regulations for the inspection of works.
- Technical and Quality Standards of the Codex Alimentarius of the World Trade Organization (WTO). As its name establishes, this food code tries to harmonize as far as possible the sanitary and phytosanitary measures leading to a standardization of food safety. It is a set of international standards often referred to as “the Codex” that go hand in hand with international organizations of agriculture and food.