The safety and hygiene standards They are the normative instruments for primary and secondary health prevention in various activities.
At work, the main goal one of the safety and hygiene regulations is to prevent work accidents and any risk to the worker’s health. However, in activities such as gastronomy or hotels, these regulations also protect the consumer.
Safety and hygiene regulations have above all a preventive function.
The International Labor Organization (ILO) established different conventions that regulate safety and hygiene at the international level:
- Convention 155 on health and safety of workers.
- R164: Recommendation on the safety and health of workers that provides the political measures to be implemented by each national government.
- Convention 161 on occupational health services: indicates the need for political measures for the creation of occupational health services.
Hygiene objectives in industry include:
- Identify those agents (substances, objects and any element of the environment) that represent a health risk for workers.
- Eliminate those agents whenever possible.
- In cases where this is not possible, reduce the negative effects of these agents.
- In this way, reduce absenteeism and increase productivity.
- Train workers so that they are alert about the risks to their health in the work environment and collaborate with the reduction of negative effects.
The measures that can be taken in the work environment to prevent illness can be as simple as a responsible use of air conditioning, or using ergonomically designed seats that eliminate harmful postures.
The works that are carried out outdoors have special regulations that refer to the protection of ultraviolet rays, cold, rain and heat.
The use of dangerous chemicals (laboratories, paint stores, hardware stores) implies specific regulations for specialized jobs.
Examples of safety and hygiene standards
- Gastronomy. Cooks and kitchen helpers should not wear watch bracelets, rings, or any other small object that could fall into food. Likewise, they must use a uniform for exclusive use in the kitchen (usually both) so as not to be contaminated by external agents. Hair must be covered by a hat or other protective clothing.
- For him “General Police Regulations for Public Shows and Recreational Activities”That appear in the Royal Decree 2816/1982, of Argentina, one of the safety regulations determines that restaurants, cafes, bars, cinemas, theaters, discotheques, casinos, party rooms, conference or exhibition halls and other similar premises must develop an emergency plan. The same regulation indicates a maximum number of participants per square meter:
- Standing spectators: 4 per square meter
- Consumers in bars and cafes: 1 per square meter of public area.
- Diners in restaurants: 1 person per 1.5 square meters of public area.
- In Colombia, every employer of ten or more permanent workers must present the hygiene and safety safety regulations in writing.
- Law 9 of 1979, Colombia. Occupational health law, which requires preserving, conserving and improving the health of individuals in their occupations.
- Resolution 02413 of 1979. Colombia. It indicates the rights and obligations of employees and employers in the field of construction. Among its standards are:
- The pavement area per worker will not be less than two square meters, without taking into account the area occupied by equipment and other facilities.
- In the vicinity of places where fire operations are carried out (ovens, hearths, etc.), the flooring of the facilities must be made of non-combustible material within a radius of one meter.
- All work establishments where there is a public sewerage must have 1 washbasin, 1 urinal and 1 shower for every fifteen workers, separated by sex.
- Resolution 08321 of 1983. Colombia. Establishes regulations to protect people’s hearing, health and well-being. It establishes a series of definitions:
- Noise pollution. “Any sound emission that adversely affects the health or safety of human beings, property or the enjoyment of it.”
- Continuous noise. “One whose sound pressure level remains constant or almost constant, with fluctuations of up to one second, which does not present sudden changes during its emission.”
- Impulsive noise. Also called impact. “One whose variations in sound pressure levels involve maximum values at intervals greater than one per second.”
This resolution establishes the maximum permissible sound levels by schedule (day or night) and area (residential, commercial, industrial or quiet).
- Resolution 132 of 1984. Colombia. It establishes the norms for the presentation of reports in cases of accidents at work.
- Sanitary Standard for the operation of Restaurants and Related Services. Peru. Determines the requirements to guarantee the sanitary quality and safety (which are not harmful) of food and beverages for human consumption at all stages prior to their consumption in restaurants. It also establishes the conditions that the facilities and practices of these establishments must meet. Among these standards are:
- “The doors must be smooth and non-absorbent surfaces, in addition to having automatic closing in environments where food is prepared.”
- “The establishment must have potable water from the public network, have a permanent supply and in sufficient quantity to attend to the activities of the establishment.”
- “The sinks must be provided with dispensers of liquid soap or similar and hygienic means to dry the hands such as disposable towels or automatic hot air dryers.”
- In hospitals. To avoid risks associated with chemical agents, the following rules are followed:
- Maintain an up-to-date record of stored chemical agents.
- Organization of the chemical products warehouse considering the dangerousness of the products and their incompatibility.
- Grouping of chemical substances (drugs, disinfectants, etc.) by their similar characteristics.
- Special isolation of excessively dangerous chemicals: very toxic, carcinogenic, explosive, etc.
- Check that all substances are properly packaged and labeled, to avoid confusion and inadvertent spills.
- Mining Safety Regulations. chili. It specifies the safety regulations to develop mining activities in the national territory. They involve both companies and workers. Among those standards are:
- Article 30. “All equipment, machinery, materials, facilities and supplies must have their technical and operating specifications in Spanish”
- Among the workers’ obligations: “It is strictly forbidden to appear on the premises of a mining site under the influence of alcohol or drugs.”
- Personnel designated to drive motor vehicles and machinery must meet a number of specific requirements:
- Pass the psycho-sensory-technical exam.
- Pass the practical and theoretical driving and operation exam.
- Pass the exam on traffic regulations.