The steroids They are a set of organic compounds derived from sterano (gonano in other nomenclatures), a polycyclic hydrocarbon, from which its name comes. For example: cholesterol, bile acids, cortisone.
Steroids are abundantly present in the human body, as part of various hormonal compounds and lipid, fulfilling various functions in the body.
In the late 1930s, steroids became very popular from artificially synthesized anabolic steroids, as a treatment for endocrine diseases such as hypogonadism, in which the sex glands do not secrete enough testosterone to promote bone and muscle growth of the individual.
Its use in sports as additive Y stimulating It was questioned since 1978 and in 1993 the first articles were published regarding the damage they cause to the body. Since then they have been considered contrary to the sporting spirit of healthy competition.
Examples of steroids
- Cholesterol. Absolutely popular since it became a vascular health problem (atherosclerosis). It is normally part of cell membranes, giving them strength and structure.
- Calciferol. From the group of vitamin D, it is an essential compound for the absorption and metabolization of calcium in the human body.
- Bile acids. Known as “bile”, they are produced to facilitate digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.
- Cortisone. A steroid hormone used to treat a number of ailments such as inflammation or autoimmune disorders, given its immunosuppressive effect.
- Testosterone. A steroid sex hormone, secreted by the male testes and female ovaries (though mostly the former). It is responsible for numerous physical changes associated with sexual maturation and adulthood, such as glandular development and increased muscle. It is the precursor to many artificial anabolic steroids.
- Progesterone. Female equivalent of testosterone, this steroid hormone is responsible for activating the menstrual cycle, allowing pregnancy and human embryogenesis. It is secreted mainly by the ovaries and the placenta, in case of pregnancy.
- Nandrolone. Widely used in the sports world to promote muscle growth, although its use is contraindicated due to the side effects of the liver type that it entails. On the other hand, its intake in women has a masculinizing phenotypic effect, such as voice aggravation and stimulation of facial hair.
- Stanozolol. A synthetic derivative of testosterone, it has been used in the medical field as a long-term treatment against autoimmune diseases such as hereditary angioedema, with very good immediate clinical results.
- Oxandrolone. This steroid hormone has been used successfully in the recovery of burn patients and in the treatment of osteoporosis for men. However, it is considered an illegal drug in the field of bodybuilding, given its use to promote greater muscle definition.
- Bile salts. Apipathic molecules (one extreme soluble in water and the other not) secreted by the body as emulsifiers in the intestinal absorption process of lipids.
- Stigmasterol. It is a phytosterol, that is, it is uniquely present in vegetables and plants, chemically very similar to cholesterol.
- Ergosterol. Present in the cell membranes of fungi, it is a biological precursor of vitamin Dtwo that fulfills the role of cholesterol in animals in the beings of the kingdom.
- Dihydrotestosterone. A variant of human testosterone, secreted primarily by the prostate, testes, and adrenal glands, it is a potent androgen that plays an essential role in embryonic life, causing the formation of male external genitalia.
- Prednisone. This is the name of a synthetic corticosteroid, whose glucocorticoid effect (carbohydrate metabolism) is used in the treatment of various diseases related to the immune system, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or Crohn’s disease. It usually causes adrenal dependence and must be administered under strict medical supervision.
- Fludrocortisone. It belongs to the set of mineralocorticoids, hormones secreted by the adrenal gland whose immediate effect is the increase of minerals in the extracellular fluid. Aldosterone, for example, increases the presence of sodium, chlorides, and bicarbonates, which in turn leads to increased water consumption and retention.
- Estrogens. Another type of female sex hormones, which are produced in up to six different types in the female body. They are responsible for lipid distribution and pigmentation of the skin, which helps to achieve the mature female phenotype.
- Norethindrone. Also known as norethisterone, it was one of the synthetic compounds that led to the manufacture of the first oral contraceptive.
- Medroxyprogesterone Acetate. Like norethindrone, it is a synthetic derivative of progesterone widely used in the contraceptive industry, as well as in hormone replacement therapy or endometriosis.
- Triamcinolone. Another corticosteroid of wide medical use, especially for psoriasis, eczema, arthritis or severe allergies. Even combined with alcohol and lotion, it is used to reactivate hair follicles against alopecia.
- Other anabolic steroids. There is a varied offer of substances derived or not derived from sex hormones and that are offered as enhancers of muscle development in the body. Many are even illegal, and all have side effects to consider.