It’s a OS that set of programs that allows a user to execute one or more tasks on the computer. In this way, the operating system is the intermediary between the user and the computer, being the basic software that provides the interface between all the rest of the programs and the hardware devices (such as the monitor, the keyboard, the speakers or the microphone. ).
Functions of operating systems
In this way, the functions that every operating system comes to fulfill are several, but the first of all stands out, which is initialize hardware of the computer; then provide basic routines to control devices; manage, rearrange and interact tasks with each other; and above all maintain the integrity of the system. Both threats (viruses) and prevention tools (antivirus) are designed precisely for the security of operating systems.
Structure of operating systems
In effect, the structure of an operating system is made up of five large ‘layers’ or stages, each of which has a series of associated functions:
- Nucleus. It is the tool that manages all processes, being in charge of keeping track of all assets and planning them. This includes the selection of the processor time that each one will occupy, so it is a very important stage that must have a lot of intelligence.
- Basic input and output. It provides primitive functions associated with secondary memory management, providing the necessary tools for locating and interpreting blocks of data on the hard disk, but without giving much detail.
- Memory management. It manages the RAM memory, allocating and freeing the processes of a part of the computer’s memory.
- File system. Provides the functions that are necessary to store information in files.
- Command interpreter. Where the interface visible to the user is located. This is being perfected and configured according to the comfort of the users.
Classification of the operating systems
There are different ways to classify and subdivide operating systems. The criteria will be listed below, and then the different groups that are formed based on them:
According to the task management mode:
- Single task. You can only run one at a time. You cannot interrupt the processes in action.
- Multitask. It is capable of running multiple processes at the same time. It is capable of assigning resources alternately to the processes that request them, so that the user perceives that they all work at the same time.
According to the users’ administration mode:
- Single user. It only allows one user’s programs to run at the same time.
- Multi-user. If you allow multiple users to run your programs simultaneously, accessing computer resources at the same time.
According to the form of resource management:
- Centralized. If it allows to use the resources of a single computer.
- Distributed. If it allows to use the resources of more than one computer at the same time.
The history of Windows
Different operating systems are offered on the market, each of which has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Among all, the most popular is the system Windows, which was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and introduced the first version of an operating system that rapidly evolved and incorporated functions. The first version was released in 1981 with a few functions, but only four years later the system became popular in the first version of Windows, 1.0.
Since then, the benefits have increased at an exponential speed, and versions of Windows such as 98, 2000 or XP were very popular: the latest is Windows 7, released in 2008 with notable advancements such as support for virtual hard drives and improved performance on multicore processors. Something similar happened with the advancement of other operating systems, among which the open Linux system stands out.
Operating systems on the Internet
Of course the conventional definitionHe of operating systems is long before the existence of the Internet, which came to reconfigure the whole vision of computers. It is possible that the different operating systems give way to a single Internet operating system, where everything depends on the ‘cloud’. In this way, the use of computers would notably change because it would not be necessary to download or install any type of program, as happens in servers like Orkut.
Based on the existence of an Internet network, a new classification of operating systems, referring to the way in which users access services: network operating systems are those that have the ability to interact with operating systems of other computers in order to exchange information, while distributed operating systems they cover network services, but also integrate resources in a single virtual machine that the user accesses in a transparent way.