The legal acts They are those that by means of a document, signed by common agreement between different parties, specify a series of rights and obligations for those parties, whether they are natural or legal persons. For instance: the payment of a debt, the registration of the birth of a child, the purchase of a property.
It can be said that the essence of everything that has been elaborated in the matter of positive law in different cultures it is found in legal acts, since these are the most elementary human manifestations of the intention to produce effects and adhere to certain rules of coexistence for a life in society.
In general, the contract is he public instrument which is intended to reveal to the actors involved and also to third parties what has been agreed upon, but it must be understood that the concept of a legal act precedes the existence of an instrument that formalizes or confirms it.
What acts are not legal?
The name of a legal act can be derived from the totality of the acts carried out by human beings, leaving out certain acts:
- Those who they have no legal effect any
- Those who they are not done voluntarily
- The ones that are made without full discernment of the participants
- Those who do not constitute a legal activity
The fundamental thing, then, is the fact that an exchange of rights and obligations is born in the light of consensus that society has drawn up, and through all the necessary tools so that there is evidence that the relationship was motivated by the genuine will of the parts. Only in that case can one effectively speak of a legal act.
Classification of legal acts
Legal acts can be classified in different ways, adjusting to different criteria according to:
- The prevailing interest, that is, if the public interest or the particular interest, in which case they will refer to acts of public law or private law, respectively.
- The declaration modality (unilateral, bilateral or multilateral)
- The existence or not of money exchange (expensive or free). The existence or not of a law mediate the act (typical and atypical)
- The characteristics of the agreement (patrimonial or extra-patrimonial)
- The time of execution (instantaneous, deferred and successive tract)
Many legal acts are perfected with the delivery of an asset or other event (consensual and real). These classifications are just a few, the important thing is that within the framework of the law it is always a matter of leaving the least amount of legal loopholes against eventual contingencies.
Examples of legal acts
- The Constitution of a society limited liability company (SRL).
- The birth registration of a child.
- The renegotiation of interests of a debt.
- The lease of land to produce.
- The purchase of a property.
- The payment of a debt.
- The transmission of a vehicle to a relative, even if there was no money in the transaction.
- Rental of an apartment to spend a vacation.
- The Civil marriage between two persons.
- The birth of an employment relationship by means of a contract.
- The signing a free trade agreement between two countries.
- The registration of an intellectual property.
- The divorce between two persons.
- The registration of a death of a person.
- Signature of a mortgage credit.
- Payment of a bond.
- The purchase of goodwill by a company.
- Call for creditors in bankruptcy.
- The signing a contract provision of an insurance service.
- The transfer of rights on a work of any kind.