A bibliographic citation It is used when, during a written text, it is necessary to refer to a piece of content from another written text and, therefore, the author must highlight the origin of that content. Citations can be used in all types of writing, from literature to scientific articles.
In general, what happens is that the reference you want to make is about a chapter or a specific section of the book. What is done, in those cases, is to write the chapter in the middle of the quote, just before the name of the book and place on to refer to a chapter in the book.
Examples of quotes
- Linz, Juan J. 1997, “Innovative leadership in the transition to democracy”, in Manuel Alcántara and Antonia Martínez (eds.), Politics and government in Spain, Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch, p. 75.
- Alker, Hayward 1998, “Political methodology, old and new”, in Robert E. Goodin and Hans-Dieter Klingemann (eds.), The New Handbook of Political Science, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Boekaerts, M. (2009). The evaluation of the student’s self-regulation skills. In C. Monereo (coord.),PISA as an excuse: rethinking assessment to change teaching (pp. 55-69). Barcelona: Graó.
- PULSE to concessions. The Mercury. Santiago, Chile, May 9, 1999. p. F1, col. 1 (In section: Properties) [Ejemplo de cita de artículo de periódico]
- Adapted from Competitive Strategy, (p. 67), by ME Porter, 2004, México DF: Compañía Editorial Continental. Copyright 2000 by Grupo Patria Cultural.
- Giménez, CM (2001). Time as a competitive element and the life cycle. In Management and costs (pp. 351-364). Buenos Aires: Macchi.
- Abreu, Víctor 1994, “Political actors” in Manuel Pastor (ed.), Fundamentals of Political Science, Madrid: MacGrawHill
- Rosler, A., Ulrich, C., Billino, J., Sterzer, P., Weidauer, S., Bernhardt, T.,… Kleinschmidt, A. (2005). Effects of arousing emotional scenes on the distribution of visuospatial attention: changes with aging and early subcortical vascular dementia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 229, 109-116. doi: 10.1016 / j.jns.2004.11.007. [Ejemplo de cita con multiplicidad de autores]
- Czernikowski, E., Gaspari, R., Matus, S. and Moscona, S. (comps.). (2003). Between brothers. Buenos Aires: Place.
- ELIASH, Humberto and TELLEZ, Andrés. Service stations: fuel, food, architecture. Design, 7 (46): 102-107, November 1997. [Ejemplo de cita de artículo de revista]
- Borgman, CL, Bower, J., & Krieger, D. (1989). From hands-on science to hands-on information retrieval. In J. Katzer, and GB Newby, (Eds.), ASIS 52nd Annual Meeting Proceedings: Vol. 26, Management Information and Technology (pp. 96-100). Medford, NJ: Learned Information. [Ejemplo de cita de acta de congreso]
- FREIRE, Juan. “Social Networks: organizational models or digital services?”.The information professional, November-December 2008, vol. 17, p. 585-588. ISSN 1386-6710.
The importance of citing
The importance of bibliographic citations is fundamental since it is practically the only means to give credit during the preparation of a text.
When an author of a popular science text puts together his bibliographic citations, his arguments acquire greater force and his readers realize what his speech will point to.
The question of the appointment is fundamental in the field of human sciences, such as history, sociology and psychology: there, most of the contributions are deepening or expanding of points of view that have already been given.
The bibliographic citation is the only way to make it clear for the author that what is elaborated is not his own but that he extracted it from another place. The Intellectual Property Law requires the citation so that the author of the cited text cannot proceed legally against the person who cited it, because by that means it is safeguarded by having clarified that the elaboration is not their own.
In addition, whoever makes a bibliographic citation should not answer to anyone for the content of the citation, precisely because it was not he who wrote it.
It is because of this value of bibliographic citations that different institutions have developed criteria for the organization of these citations. One is that of the American Psychological Association (APA citations), another that of the Modern Language Association (MLA citations) and another very important that of ISO standards, aimed at text editors. Some verbatim quotes will be exemplified below.