A geographic depression It is a type of relief or geographical accident in which the surface is sunken in relation to the immediate or surrounding territory. Surfaces that are below sea level are also called this way. For example: the Turfán depression in China, the Gran Bajo de San Julián in Argentina.
Some geographic depressions are a great tourist attraction because they are a large hole or sinkhole that is usually full of water and surrounded by loose rocks. There are also totally dry depressions.
Geographic depressions can measure from centimeters to kilometers in diameter and have different depths. The deepest depression on Earth is the Dead Sea, which is 400 meters below sea level.
Causes of the formation of geographic depressions
Geographic depressions are formed by:
- The movement of tectonic plates.
- Erosion caused by wind, water or glaciers.
- Environmental factors that man (with his careless intervention) performs on the environment.
Examples of geographic depressions
- Jordan Valley. It is located in Asia, in the countries of Israel, Palestine and Jordan. It is made up of the Dead Sea, the lowest point on the planet with more than 400 meters deep, and the Sea of Galilee, a lake 212 meters below sea level. In Palestine, 260 meters below sea level, is Jericho, the lowest city on the planet.
- Turpan Depression. It is located in China, in the Sinkiang region, with a depth of 154 meters below sea level, it is one of the deepest depressions on Earth.
- afar depression. It is located in East Africa, in the countries of Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti, where Lake Assal is located, the lowest point on the African continent at 155 meters below sea level.
- Qattara Depression. Located northwest of Egypt, it has the second lowest point in Africa with 133 meters below sea level.
- Karagiye Depression. It is located in Kazakhstan to the east of the Caspian Sea, its lowest point is 132 meters below sea level.
- Great Bass of Saint Julian. It is located in the province of Santa Cruz, in southern Argentina. Laguna del Carbón is the largest depression in the South American continent and in the southern hemisphere, with 105 meters below sea level.
- Badwater Basin. It is located in the Death Valley National Park, in the United States. With a depth of 86 meters below sea level, it is the lowest point in North America.
- Great Bass of the Gualicho. It is located in the province of Río Negro, in southern Argentina. With a depth of 72 meters below sea level, it is the second depression in South America.
- Lake Enriquillo. It is located in the Dominican Republic. At 46 meters below sea level, it is the lowest point in the Caribbean.
- Sechura Depression. It is located in the province of Sechura, in Peru. It is the third depression in Latin America with a point of 34 meters below sea level.