It is called flora and fauna the set of species of plants and animals that inhabit the same geographic region or in a given ecosystem.
- Flora. It includes all plant species: plants and flowers, shrubs, trees, vegetables that inhabit the same geographical area (country, region, continent) or that are part of a specific ecosystem (forest, plain, steppe, desert). For instance: Lto orchid, cactus and beans are plant species that make up the Mexican flora; Sea grasses and algae are plant species that make up the marine ecosystem.
- Fauna. It includes all animals: terrestrial and aquatic, vertebrates and invertebrates, both domestic and wild, that inhabit a geographical area (country, region, continent) or that are part of a specific ecosystem (forest, plain, steppe, desert). For instance: ANDl crocodile, coyote and badger are animal species that make up the Mexican fauna; the crab, the shark and the killer whale are animal species that make up the marine ecosystem.
Flora and fauna are considered biotic factors, and together with abiotic factors (climate, level of rainfall, type of soil) they constitute ecosystems. All the ecosystems of the world have a characteristic fauna and flora; the species that make them up are adapted to their geographic and climatic conditions.
The flora and fauna are essential to maintain the ecological balance and they need each other. Plants release in photosynthesis the oxygen that animals need to live; animals produce and release carbon dioxide through respiration that plants use for photosynthesis. For this reason, the protection and conservation of ecosystems and their biodiversity is investigated and promoted.
Types of flora
- Native flora
The native flora is made up of plant species that grow naturally in a certain ecosystem or geographic area. Native plants are closely associated with the ecosystem they inhabit, they are related to the birds and insects with which they share habitat.
- Exotic flora
Exotic flora is one that reaches an ecosystem through human action or external factors.
Within the exotic flora is the agricultural flora, formed by the plants that are used for agricultural cultivation or gardening; and the invasive flora, made up of exotic species that settle in a new ecosystem and due to their characteristics (reproductive capacity, adaptability) put biodiversity at risk.
Types of fauna
Wildlife can be indigenous or exotic. The native fauna It is that of a certain ecosystem that has not suffered alterations or has been domesticated by humans. Exotic fauna is that which has been introduced to another ecosystem by human action or by external factors.
The exotic fauna that is introduced into a new ecosystem is one that manages to adapt to the biotic and abiotic factors of the new habitat (soil type, absence of predators). In many cases, exotic fauna can become invasive when it threatens the new ecosystem and puts native flora and fauna at risk; such is the case of beavers in the province of Tierra del Fuego, in southern Argentina, or rabbits in Australia.
- Domesticated fauna
The domesticated fauna is made up of those animals raised by humans. Animals such as dogs and cats are used as pets. Animals such as the goat, the horse, the donkey are domesticated and used as a means of transport, work tool or to obtain some benefit.
Examples of flora and fauna
- Flora and fauna of the temperate forest
|Remote carex||Nepalese owl|
- Desert flora and fauna
|Opuntia||Gerbil of Egypt|
- Jungle flora and fauna
Mexican green macaw
Red eyed frog
|Mahogany from Honduras||Bat|
- Flora and fauna of the savannah
|Jackal tree||Black mamba|