The natural Sciences are the ones in charge of dealing with the study of nature, with the purpose of deciphering theories and laws that explain the functioning of some natural element of the world, or natural phenomena.
In general, the concept is coined in opposition to that of social Sciences, which is the group of sciences that seeks to develop laws on the relationships that appear between people living in the world. This opposition, however, leaves out some disciplines such as logic and mathematics, which do not fully correspond to either of the two categories: they are the well-known formal sciences, which use abstract entities to explain phenomena.
The natural sciences, perhaps more than any other kind of science, uses the scientific method to achieve its objectives. It is the best example of this, since most of the Laws that are formulated in this field are falsifiable and therefore, admit the possibility of being compared through experiments, and eventually corrected.
This is precisely what gave rise to an evolution of the natural sciences with knowledge that progressively surpassed each other, something that did not happen in the same way in the social sciences (where knowledge is not entirely probable, so the complete scientific method is not admitted) nor in the formal sciences (where they are immediately probable by means of the laws of application in all cases).
Classification of Natural Sciences
There are four large groups into which the natural sciences are divided, existing in turn within each one different internal categories:
- Chemistry. Basic science whose object of study is matter, and deals with explaining its composition, structure and properties. The categories it contains are biochemistry, the physical chemistry, the petrochemistry and the astrochemistry, among other.
- Physical. Science that is responsible for explaining the relationships between matter and the environment, in particular with space, time and energy. Movement is one of the central topics of interest for physics, and for this reason it is necessary to develop theories with a high mathematical content. However, this is not one of the disciplines contained by physics, as seen above. The internal disciplines of physics are thermodynamics, the mechanics, the electromagnetism, and the quantum physics.
- biology. Science that studies living beings, from their origin to their properties and their evolution over time. In turn, it has within it the categories of the biochemistry, the histology, the physiology, the genetics, the zoology, the botany and the microbiology.
- geology. Science that deals with the study of the earth and its structure. The processes that occur in the internal rocks of our planet, the movements of the earth’s crust and the structure of continents and oceans is part of its area, which also contains the geophysics, the geochemistry, the geobotany and the paleontology.
- Astronomy. Science of the celestial bodies, also including their movements and the phenomena linked to them. The planets, the stars, the satellites and everything that is beyond the terrestrial border is its field of application.
Natural Sciences in everyday life
Here are some examples of the value of the natural sciences in everyday life.
- Knowledge about plants is essential for awareness about caring for them, knowing the value they have for human beings.
- The expansion of the chemical industry has great relevance in the current economy and quality of life.
- The entire electrical structure of a city is associated with the chemical notion of electricity.
- Fuel, as we know it, is not oil in its natural state but undergoes a transformation that is part of chemistry.
- Explanations of climatic phenomena correspond to meteorology, and explanations of people’s perceptions of these phenomena concern thermodynamics.
- Any fall of an object to the ground is the responsibility, first of all, of the Law of gravity, which is not the same on all planets. The Law is from the field of physics, but the contribution on gravity on each planet includes astronomy.
- The possibility of reaching an unknown city and soon having an easy-to-understand map is due to the conventions arrived at from geography.
- The construction of buildings is always associated with physical laws to minimize the risk of a collapse. In seismic zones, geology is also included to determine the eventual intensity of the movements.
- The succession of seasons in the year is a task of astronomy, since it is due to the movement of the planet in relation to the sun.
- The evolution of the mining industry is closely related to geology.