The specialized cells They are those dedicated to the fulfillment of a particular function within a cellular system or tissue. This specialization is essential in the evolutionary emergence of multicellular organisms, since the differentiation of tasks and responsibilities allows the constitution and functioning of more complex biological structures. For instance: myocytes, atrocytes, osteocytes.
This is particularly evident during embryonic stages or the constitution of a new individual of the species, when the different cells that make up the zygote begin to distinguish themselves from the others, each assuming an identity related to the future parts of the body of the fully formed individual.
The famous “mother cells“On the other hand, they are those still undifferentiated cells that harbor the potential to become any type of cell necessary in the body.
Examples of specialized cells
- Myocytes. A type of elastic cell, capable of expanding and contracting its proportions, which constitutes the muscular tissues, responsible for mobility in the living beings of the Animal Kingdom. Those that make up the heart, for example, never stop stretching and contracting throughout the individual’s life.
- Astrocytes. Chemically and electrically configured for the conduction of the information that constitutes the bulk of the Nervous System of animals, they are in charge, together with the neurons, of the control of the various bodily processes, both automatic and conscious.
- Osteocytes. Cells responsible for the assimilation of calcium and other elements for the development and mineralization of bones, are key in supporting the organism of vertebrate animals and the physical protection of vital organs.
- Erythrocytes. The most abundant cells in the blood of higher animals are responsible for carrying oxygen to the different cellular systems of the body, keeping them nourished and energized, and for this they have hemoglobin, an oxygen receptor that allows its transport.
- Gametes. Sex cells, morphologically differentiated according to the gender of the individual that produces them (male and female), in which half of the individual’s complete genetic load is contained and produce, through fertilization and meiosis, an embryo that eventually you will become a completely new individual.
- Chlorénchymes. Cells that make up the main plant tissues: the leaves, and are responsible for photosynthesis through which plant beings obtain their energy. For this they have chloroplasts inside, and require sunlight, carbon dioxide, salts and water.
- Epidermal cells. The outer tissues of plants and animals are made up of this type of cells, whose arrangement in scaly and flexible layers (in animals) or impermeable and flattened (in plants) provide protection and delimitation to the individual.
- Leukocytes. Part of the immune system, in charge of defending the body from possible microbial invaders and pathogens, these cells are dedicated to isolating and expelling unwanted elements from the body.
- Hepatocytes. Those that form the liver of higher animals, are responsible for the synthesis of vital proteins and the production of bile, vital for digestive and assimilative processes, as well as the catabolism of toxic substances or blood surpluses.
- Adipocytes. They form adipose or fatty tissue in animals, through the storage of triglycerides and cholesterol, as a method of energy storage.
- Chondrocytes. Exclusive cells of cartilage tissue, responsible for keeping it standing, from its collagen and proteoglycan contents. In some animals they make up the complete skeleton from this material.
- Sclereids. Plant cells responsible for constituting hard and resistant tissues, present in stone fruits or in certain supporting plant tissues. Very irregular in shape, they are characterized by their thick secondary cell wall.
- Enterocytes. Forming part of the epithelium (outer wall) of the intestinal ducts of animals, they fulfill the function of absorbing electrolytes, water and the various essential nutrients from food that will later become excrement.
- Mast cells. Ovoid cells of the human body that are part of the connective tissue, where they carry out immunological tasks, using substances such as heparin and histamine, which trigger defensive reactions in the body.
- Hyphae. Cellular rows in the form of tubes and covered with chitin, which are characteristic of fungi and whose set is called mycelia. They lack chloroblasts, like animal cells, but have a cell wall, like plant cells. That is why they form a separate kingdom (fungi kingdom).
- Fibroblasts. Simple, abundant and common cells, very little differentiated, of the body of animals, where they constitute the bulk of the connective tissue, keeping together but differentiated the various tissues of the body.
- Endothelial cells. They constitute the wall and the inner layer of the blood vessels and capillaries of higher animals, fulfilling various functions of regulation, hormonal secretion and transport of the blood system.
- Schwann cells. By covering neurons in a layer of myelin, they distinguish themselves from the rest of the nerve cells, providing them with support and protection.
- Melanocytes. Located in the skin tissues of the human body and some animals, they contain myelin that gives the characteristic color to the tissue when it comes into contact with UV radiation.
- Optical cells. Various cell types located in the eyes of animals, responsible for capturing light information and transmitting it to the nervous system to be interpreted. +