The pseudosciences They are those practices or theories that are presented as science but that do not respond to a valid research method or cannot be verified by the scientific method. For instance: acupuncture, astrology, numerology, alkaline diets.
While science cannot be falsifiable (it cannot be disproved), pseudosciences use scientific data to defend postulates that have no experimental verification. They are usually validated by society, although many times they lack foundations and logic.
The term pseudoscience carries a negative charge, as it suggests that something is being presented as science when it is not. For instance: on the medicinal level, when certain effects or benefits are attributed to some practices without being empirically endorsed.
There are numerous examples of disciplines, methods, and theories that are considered pseudosciences. These cultivate adherents all over the world.
Characteristics of pseudosciences
- They cover various aspects of human life and are based on practices, experiences and beliefs.
- Some seek to respond to situations or physical or psychological ailments of the human being, others try to explain phenomena of nature.
- A scientific method cannot be applied to them. Information is not obtained by corroborating a hypothesis and its object of study cannot be subjected to a scientific analysis to be confirmed.
- They tend to resort to selective evidence.
- They rely on supernatural or immaterial issues to support their theories.
- Some are based on healthy habits or customs that can be positive in some ways and for some people.
- They should not be confused with science and it is necessary to have information in all cases to know its effects and consequences.
- They can cause harm such as the abandonment of medical therapies.
Pseudoscience vs. science
Detractors of pseudosciences argue that it is an intentional attempt to put pseudosciences and verifiable science on an equal footing. Unlike science, in pseudosciences the same object of study can respond differently.
Medicine is the science that most alternates with pseudosciences, since there are a variety of alternative therapies with which diseases and pathologies are treated. Many of the therapies have diffuse limits and foundations and appeal to the emotional aspect of the people who consume them. For instance: cancer cure therapies.
In recent years, governments, universities and science professionals spread information and awareness campaigns among the population about the differences between science and pseudosciences so that people could know and decide.
Conspiracy theories are alternative theories to official ones that argue that governments and power groups deceive citizens about some issues. For instance: the arrival of man on the moon, the effects of the use of vaccines or the concealment of the cancer cure.
These pseudoscientific theories are found in the fields of medicine and science, and have been widely accepted. Some theories about planet Earth are:
- The Flat Earth Society. It states that the Earth is flat and shaped like a disk.
- Ufology. He investigates UFOs and maintains that various groups suppress the supposed evidence of their appearance.
- Belief in the hollow earth. It affirms that within planet Earth there are subterranean civilizations.
- Bermuda Triangle. It affirms the existence of an area in the Atlantic Ocean where strange and mysterious marine disappearances take place.
Examples of pseudosciences
- Astrology. Study of the relationship between the position of planets, stars, satellites and the personality of people.
- Cerealology. Study of circles that appear in large openings and that have a remarkable perfection and symmetry.
- Cryptozoology. Study of animals called cryptics, such as the Loch Ness Monster or the chupacabra.
- Numerology. Hidden study of numbers to determine characteristics of people.
- Parapsychology Study of extrasensory phenomena between living human beings, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis.
- Psychoanalysis. Study that supports the importance of the processes that are repressed unconsciously and lodged in a state of latency or unconsciousness.
- Dowsing. Study of a characteristic that certain people could have to perceive electromagnetic charges.
- Graphology. Study of the personality of a subject by observing his writing.
- Iridology. Method that maintains that all disorders of the body can be diagnosed by looking for changes in the color of the iris of the eye.
- Homeopathy. Method that supports the cure of certain diseases through the oral application of minimal doses of artisanal preparations.
- Feng shui Harmonization method that is based on the four elements (water, earth, fire, air) in relation to the harmony of a particular home or space for the correct circulation of energy.
- Palmistry. Divination method based on the study of the lines of the hands.
- Biomagnetism. Method of curing diseases through the use of magnets.
- Germanic New Medicine. Set of practices that promise the cure of most diseases.
- Physiognomy. Theory that affirms that from the physiognomy of a person it is possible to know their personality.
- Phrenology. Theory that states that a certain characteristic or mental capacity is located in a certain area of the brain.
- Cosmic ice theory. Theory that states that ice is the basis of all matter in the universe.
- A second moon. Theory that affirms the existence of a second moon located about 3,570 kilometers away from Earth.
- Creationism. Theory that maintains that the universe was created by God.
- Personology. Theory that states that the features of a person’s face can be an indicator of the type of personality they have.