The factual science or factual are those that deal with factual verification (of factum, Latin word for “facts”) or tangible of their hypotheses and premises, from observation and experimentation, that is, the reproduction of a series of conditions to obtain a predictable result.
For this reason, they depend on an empirical content that must be confirmed through experience: said verifiability is key to distinguish them from others. Sciences.
They differ from formal or pure sciences (such as logic and mathematics) in that they pay more attention to procedures (forms) than to content (facts). In addition, factual science they use the scientific method for their investigations, while the formal ones use the inductive logical method.
In turn, factual sciences are divided into natural Sciences (those that deal with the relationships existing in the universe and that do not include the intervention of man) and social Sciences (devoted to the study of the relationships that govern the world of human beings).
Examples of factual science
- Biology, responsible for the study of life in its various variants and possibilities, which encompasses all kinds of living beings, from the bacteria and ways of protozoon, even the higher animals, even the human being.
- Physics, in charge of the study of operating laws of nature, in its various variables and possibilities, from applied physics to astrophysics.
- Chemistry, whose object of study is the constitution and transformation of the matter in its various levels and reactions.
- Psychology, in charge of studying the internal functioning mechanisms of the human mind: its constitutive and evolutionary processes, its possible structures, etc.
- Social Psychology, which studies the way in which the human psyche structures its forms of collectivity and relationships of influence and emotional, symbolic and affective reciprocity.
- The sociology, interested in the study of human groups and collectives, or of human society as a whole: its formation processes and internal struggles, always within the historical-social context in which they are inserted.
- The economy, science dedicated to the understanding of the processes of wealth generation, production, distribution and consumption of goods in human society, either in the framework of the forms of commerce of a country or a certain region or as a whole, in which case it is called Economic Theory.
- Political science, also called Politology or Political Theory, make political work and its various aspects and formations the subject of their main interest. That includes the government systems, the forms and social behaviors around power and the various possible regimes of human organization.
- Sexology, whose specific focus is the anatomical (biological) and cultural study of human sexual behaviors and practices.
- Geology, devoted to the study of the composition and internal structuring of the Earth, as well as the evolutionary processes that have constituted it throughout geological time. It comprises a compendium of geosciences that undertake the revision of plate tectonics, as well as planetary geology or astrogeology.
- The right, also called Laws or Legal Sciences, includes the study of the constitution of the normative and institutional order of the human jurisprudence apparatus, that is, of the legislative constructions that allow solving human conflicts in a fair, consensual and equitable manner. I also study the historical composition of the different legal regimes, as well as the underlying philosophy and the relationships between them.
- The history, discipline whose object of study is the past of the human species and whose method is that of the so-called social sciences. There is discussion as to whether History is a Social Science or a Humanistic Science, but the most current trends prefer to include it in the first set of disciplines.
- Anthropology, understood as the science that studies the human being from an integral perspective, using a combination of tools and knowledge of the various natural and social sciences, trying to cover both the biological evolution of our species, as well as its ways of life and the varied cultural and linguistic expressions that characterize it in its complexity.
- Human Geography, responsible for the study of human societies from a spatial perspective, that is, emphasizing the relationship between societies and their physical means of development. Thus, various cultural landscapes and human regions are established, which contribute to the spatial diagnosis of our presence on the planet.
- Paleontology, a natural science whose study regime includes the interpretation of the different fossil records, based on methods and fundamentals closely shared with biology and geology, sister disciplines.