The horticulture It is the science that takes care of everything related to vegetables. This ranges from the technology required for sowing, care, harvesting, distribution, price and subsequent consumption.
From the strict point of view the word “horticulture” is defined as such as ground where the vegetables or crops are grown. This land can be extensive (that is, have hundreds of hectares) or only have a few meters.
Horticulture is everything that refers to the vegetable care regardless of the moment of the process in which they are.
The horticulturists They are those people who are in charge of making the necessary improvements so that the crops are more profitable. For this purpose, specialized fertilizers, fumigators (to prevent the spread of insects and pests that harm planting), types of garden irrigation, suitable weather conditions, etc. are used.
Some decades ago, the genetic manipulation as a fundamental tool to favor the development of plants and that they can cope with the pests and diseases that commonly lurk at planting of any kind.
Types of horticulture
There is a organization that regulates everything related to horticulture. This organization is called International Society for Horticultural Sciences (SICH). This society has determined that, within horticulture, different types of horticulture can be differentiated:
- Floriculture. It is the part of horticulture that deals with flowers and plants that are planted for ornamental purposes. That is, its sale in nurseries is used to decorate them both indoors and in gardens or parks.
- Olericulture. It is that area within the horticulture in charge of the vegetables whether they are roots, tubers, leaves or fruits.
- FRUITCULTURE. It is the area in charge of the fruits.
- Aromatic and medicinal species. They are those areas that are responsible for the production and marketing of aromatic species such as rosemary, lavender, lemon grass, etc.
Characteristics of horticultural crops
Unlike other types of crops, horticultural crops have some characteristics that differentiate them from the rest:
- They contain a high percentage of water (between 90 and 95%)
- With technological advances, it is intended that the period from sowing to harvest is shorter and shorter to maximize consumption. Anyway, this point depends on each species of vegetable itself and the growing time before harvest.
- They do not need large areas of land (although the larger these are, the more they can be sown).
Classification of horticultural crops
- By scientific rigor. This classification takes into account morphological, systematic and physiological issues specific to each crop.
- By practical order. The objective here is to make the most of each crop as possible.
- Biological type. It takes into account the place or site of the sowing of the crops. For example, type of weather, amount of rainfall, weather changes, etc.
Another possible classification of horticultural crops is based on the depth given by the root extension. This extension not only takes into account the type of vegetables but also the type of soil since, often a very clayey type of soil prevents the root from growing too much.
According to this classification, vegetables can be divided into 3 large groups:
Superficial roots (between 45 and 60 cm). These include:
Moderately deep roots (90 to 120 cm). These include:
- Early squash
Deep roots (more than 120 cm). These include:
- Sweet potato
- Butter beans
- Late squash
Vegetables that live 3 or 4 years
- Alcaucil Asparagus
- Watercress from the Frutilla fountain
- Oregano Thistle
Annual vegetables that resist frost
- Radicheta Turnip Chard
- Garlic Onion Broad Bean
- Celery Marjoram Beetroot
- Pea Cauliflower Leek
- Broccoli Spinach Cabbage
- Endive Parsley Salsify
- Fennel Radish Carrot
Annual vegetables sensitive to cold or icy climates
- Basil Melon Beans
- Sweet Potato Okra Watermelon
- Eggplant Potato Tomato
- Pumpkin Cucumber Spinach
- Zelandia Pepper Zucchini