A argument It is a statement that attempts to confirm, refute, or explain an idea. Every argument has two parts: premises (propositions that affirm or deny something) and conclusion.
There are several types of arguments among which are deductive arguments and inductive arguments. Both are ways of reasoning that reach conclusions in different ways.
- Deductive arguments. They draw a conclusion from the premises. If the premises are true, the conclusion is also true. Deductive arguments have a logical basis, their conclusion is contained in the information of the premises.
Premise 1: Dogs bark.
Premise 2: Jaco is a dog.
Conclusion: Jaco barks.
- Inductive arguments. They draw conclusions from certain observations or particular experiences. Inductive arguments start from this observation and then generalize. They draw a conclusion based on probabilities and intuition.
Premise 1: Maria ate chocolate and her tummy hurts.Premise 2: Sandra also ate chocolate and her tummy hurts.
Conclusion: If you eat chocolate your belly will hurt.
Characteristics of deductive arguments
Characteristics of inductive arguments
Examples of deductive arguments
- Dairy products provide calcium.
Yogurt is a dairy.
Yogurt provides calcium.
- October 12 is a holiday in my country.
Today is October 12.
Today is a holiday in my country.
- Plants need water to live.
Roses are plants.
Roses need water to live.
- The teachers of the institution wear aprons.
Amalia is a teacher.
Amalia wears an apron.
- José must pass the exam to graduate as a doctor.
José failed the exam.
José did not graduate as a doctor.
- The minimum age to enroll in school is five years old.
Juana is four years old.
Juana cannot be enrolled in school.
- The green peaches have not ripened.
This peach is green.
This peach has not ripened.
- Lightning anticipates thunder.
There has been a flash of lightning.
Thunder will come.
- Sofia’s daughters are blondes.
Carmela is Sofia’s daughter.
Carmela is blonde.
- My aunt’s son is my cousin.
Gastón is my aunt’s son.
Gastón is my cousin.
Examples of inductive arguments
- It’s hot in my apartment.
It’s hot in my neighbor’s apartment.
The whole building I live in is hot.
- Felipe is sweet and hardworking.
His wife Maria is a sweet and hardworking person.
Their children are surely sweet and hardworking.
- A young woman on a bicycle ran a red light.
A young man on a bicycle ran a red light.
All young people on bicycles go through red lights.
- Catalina’s suitcase is black.
Lucia’s suitcase is black.
Pedro’s suitcase is black.
The suitcases are usually black.
- Deputy Santiago Rojas wears a suit in each session of Congress.
Congressman Roberto Garcián wears a suit in each session of Congress.
All the deputies wear a suit to go to Congress.
- Jorge plays basketball and is tall.
Bruno plays basketball and is tall.
Simon plays basketball and is tall.
Damien plays basketball and is tall.
All basketball players are tall.
- The plants on my balcony are green.
The plants on my next door neighbor’s balcony are green.
The plants on my front neighbor’s balcony are green.
All plants are green.
- Yesterday there was a strike in the Madrid metro.
Today there is a strike in the Madrid metro.
The Madrid metro usually makes many stops.
- Carlos is Mexican and is very sociable.
Asunción is Mexican and is very sociable.
Most Mexicans are likely to be outgoing.
- The supermarket in my neighborhood has very high prices.
The pharmacy in my neighborhood has very high prices.
The shops in my neighborhood are very expensive.