The motivation It is the impulse that moves people to develop different tasks or activities. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are two complementary and different types of motivation.
- Intrinsic motivation. It starts from the inside of the person, is voluntary and does not require an external incentive. This type of motivation seeks self-realization and personal development. The execution of the task alone is the reward. For example: a hobby, community help.
- Extrinsic motivation. It comes from the outside, and arises when a reward, award or approval is offered for the performance of a task or activity. For example: work for pay, study for a degree.
Motivations appear in all areas in which the person develops a task or activity. They can be at work, school, losing weight, playing tennis. It is the source of energy that allows you to persevere in a certain task, achieve the proposed objectives, create habits, try new things.
Both types of motivation can be presented in a positive or negative way; the objective is to understand them as a whole and try to satisfy them.
Theory of self-determination
The types of motivation were specified by the theory of self-determination developed by psychologists Edward L. Deci and Richard Ryan.
His objective was to understand what type of motivation guided people in different areas: educational, work, recreation, sports.
They discovered that social and environmental factors help or hinder intrinsic motivations, and that man has three basic psychological needs, which are the basis of self-motivation:
- Competence. Master tasks, develop different skills.
- Relationship. Interact with our peers and the environment.
- Autonomy. To be causal agents of our own life.
The theory of self-determination gave way to subtheories that developed specific aspects that emerged from the study of motivation.
Characteristics of a person with intrinsic motivation
- Enjoy the process more than the end result.
- It does not disappear after having reached the objective and has the particularity of being more cooperative and less competitive.
- Accept failure as part of the process of reaching your goal.
Characteristics of a person with extrinsic motivation
- Pursue the accomplishment of the goal to gain the approval of another person.
- It can be a bridge to intrinsic motivation.
- External rewards can provoke an interest in participating in something in which the individual had no initial interest.
Examples of an intrinsically motivated person
- Practice a hobby.
- Learn without looking for a grade for that activity.
- Help a person to cross the street.
- Attend a dining room to serve dinner or lunch.
- Donate clothes for homeless people.
- Improve knowledge about something.
- Go to work because we enjoy our work.
Examples of a person with extrinsic motivation
- Work for money.
- Bonus rewards for extra work hours.
- Study for a grade.
- Reach a specific goal at work to receive gifts or rewards.
- Change jobs for the motivation of tangible benefits and not for the task itself.
- Pass an exam to receive a gift from our parents.
- Seeking someone’s recognition for our work.